Black holes warmed Universe
At an early stage of development, our universe went through a long period of “space warming,” a form of climate change intergalactic space.
Members of the Royal Astronomical Society, came to the conclusion that for a long time in the first third of the universe temperature of the gas from which later formed stars and galaxies was much higher than now. “In the early days it was mostly stuff scattered in space. And the thin gas of about 10 billion years was strongly heated, “- said George Becker, an astronomer at the University of Cambridge.
Temperature of the intergalactic gas in question has grown pretty cool. If after 1 billion years after the Big Bang the temperature of the universe was set at a level of about 8 thousand ° C, then another 2 billion years temperatures have risen by 50% – up to 12,000 ° C.
Discovery scientists put to a halt. Since the warming trend, but still sharp enough to run counter to notions of universal model climate. After all, the ever expanding universe must consistently cool. “The temperature of the galactic gas should fall just as the temperature decreases the gas emitted from an aerosol can,” – says Dr. Becker.
The effect of “universal warming” experts explain the presence of the young active galaxies and quasars action, bright objects in the centers of these galaxies. Each quasar is a star and a black hole. These objects have the ability to glow and emit powerful beams of ultraviolet. The average intensity of the quasar energy produces 10 trillion times larger than our sun. “Quasars are of great interest for developing astronomy. We learn about them a lot. Quasars, black holes absorb matter, turning the center of the galaxy in a heavy-duty radiator, warming all around, “- says Dr. Becker.
The work of astronomers was held in Hawaii, where has a powerful 10-meter telescope Keck. And all the data were processed on a supercomputer in CAMBRIDGE. The same mvashina and “draw” the model of universal warming.
A black hole is an unprecedented size
Black hole yet unseen dimensions found a group of U.S. astronomers led by Karl Gebhardt (Karl Gebhardt) of the University of Texas (University of Texas in Austin). Opening managed to do with an 8-meter telescope in Hawaii (8.1-metre Frederick C. Gillett Gemini Telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii). Scientists have even identified a lot of this monstrous object – about 7 billion solar. According to “Komsomolskaya Pravda”.
Nightmare “monster” is located in the center of a large elliptical galaxy M87, which, in turn, is located 50 million light-years from Earth.
– In this black hole entirely fit our solar system – surprised his discovery Karl Gebhardt.
Scientists believe that the observation of such a huge object will finally see whether black holes are black holes in reality. And whether they exist today notions about them.
While astronomers have determined that under the influence of an object around stars are moving at a speed of 500 kilometers per second. These stars of the “monster”, it seems, and eats. A diet supplements small black holes. And fullness.
Near the Earth discovered two black holes
Far from Earth discovered just two black holes, spectacular footage captured U.S. orbital telescope “Chandra.” Of course, the “close” – a relative, it is about 160 million light-years.
Far from Earth discovered just two black holes, spectacular footage captured U.S. orbital telescope “Chandra”. Of course, “close” – a relative, it is about 160 million light-years. But it is the closest planet to the black hole. Affect us, they certainly can not, but scientists the opportunity to study the merger of two galaxies, and in which there were two holes.
Recent images of the galaxy NGC-3393. They are made relatively close to Earth – 160 million light years. Astronomers caught in the lens space telescope “Chandra” just a couple of black holes. Shot very well. By earthly ideas, in a galaxy where there is no inter-galactic mergers, space for two black holes are not provided.
Recent images of the galaxy NGC-3393. They are made relatively close to Earth – 160 million light years. Astronomers caught in the lens space telescope “Chandra” just a pair of black holes. Shot very well.
“It is known that in this galaxy black hole exists, but no one suspected that there is not one, but two. What has been quite unexpectedly discovered is that the double black hole was found in a galaxy that looks pretty decent, that is, there was no sign that it merged with something “- said Professor of Astrophysics and Stellar Astronomy State Institute of Astronomy named PK MSU M. Sternberg University Anatoly Bolt.
Black holes can not be seen. They do not emit, but only absorb energy. Around them, slow down time and gravity maximum, maximum extent that it is only permissible to the laws of nature.
Black hole detected by the radiation of the space objects that it currently sucks. Record such phenomena by using the X-ray telescope. “Chandra”, named in honor of the god of the moon in the Hindu mythology, stays in space on special elongated orbit. The closest approach to Earth – 16,000 miles.
“Most in the optical radiation is not very strong, because a considerable part of the energy trapped dust that hides a very bright core. But X-rays can penetrate a considerable thickness of substances and X-rays reach us, “- says Anatoly Bolt.
Future holes predictably: they will spin around each other until they become one. The more so that the distance between them is small – 490 light-years.
But it is curious how many more such objects lurking in the vicinity of our galaxy? Scientists themselves do not deny: to find the pair failed only because the galaxy in which they are, by space standards fairly close to the Milky Way.
Astronomers described the consequences of a collision with a black hole sun
According to RIA Novosti, modern astronomical instruments are able to fix the “solntsetryaseniya” that may arise in the event of a collision of the sun and the black hole of small mass, the so-called primordial black holes, the parameters of the event described the American astronomers in an article posted in the digital library at Cornell University.
“We predict that primordial black holes with a mass of more than 10 degrees in 21 grams (1000 billion tons), comparable to the mass of the asteroid can be detected by existing solar observatories” – the article says.
The existence of black holes, regions, the gravitational pull of which is so great that they can not even leave the light, it was predicted by general relativity. At the moment, astronomers know of two types of black holes: stellar mass (about 10 solar masses), which are formed by the gravitational collapse of massive stars that have exhausted their supply of fusion fuel, and supermassive, which are at the center of galaxies (from millions to billions of solar masses).
However, the black hole mass is much less than the solar could be formed in the early stages of the universe as a result of fluctuations in the density – deviations from uniformity of the gravitational field and the density of matter at the birth of the universe. Thus, in contrast to the “classical” black holes, the minimum mass of primordial black holes formation is not limited, but “too light” had during the existence of the universe has already evaporated by Hawking radiation.
In today’s universe, so had to stay primordial black hole weighing more than 500 million tons – a mass of small asteroid. Such black holes could fly through the stars, not destroying them.
“Stars” transparent “for primordial black holes can serve as seismic detektoromi for such objects. The gravitational field of black holes causes compression of the stars and makes them “jingle” – oscillate in the acoustic frequency range, “- wrote the authors, Michael Kesden (Michael Kesden) from the University of New York and Shravan Hanasoug (Shravan Hanasoge) from Princeton University.
Researchers have developed a computer model that predicts the effects of flight through the primordial black hole sun. Gravitational interaction of our star and objects of this kind should cause “solntsetryasenie”, which will result in acoustic oscillations of solar matter, which can be fixed with special telescopes.
The simulation results show that the visible effects of such collisions can be detected only if the black hole sun flies through the path, close in length to the radius of the star. This phenomenon, according to American researchers, could be observed in the collision of a black hole weighing 10 million times smaller than the mass of the sun for a few hours.
Scientists point out that such a collision should occur very rarely, so it is necessary to track the traces of such events on other stars.
In particular, the future probe Stellar Imager can see traces starquakes of primordial black holes.
Astrophysics write that dark matter – the substance that makes up much of the mass of the universe, but is not involved in any interactions except gravity, perhaps, consists of primordial black holes.
If the experiments at the Large Hadron Collider will not find its nature, it can be to try to find methods of asteroseismology.