Battle for Antarctica
How often we hear the phrase – “the heritage of humanity.” Beautiful? Yes. Unfortunately, this beautiful phrase hides a banal desire of our geopolitical “friends” to seize the wealth rightfully belong to Russia. Already there was talk about that Siberia must belong “to all mankind.”
Under international law as determined by the membership of various “open” lands, islands and even continents (Australia)? Who discovered that the earth.
So, Antarctica opened Russian. And, then, it rightfully should belong to Russia?
The history of the “Battle of Antarctica” in the material resource nstarikov.ru commentator Yelena Fedotova.
“Once was Antarctica. In 1959, she became the mainland of international cooperation, science and military interference. At the last human resource base allowed search and extraction of minerals, it does not belong to any state. All countries in chorus said “Okay” and began living together ….
It is not because the Arctic is not it? Perhaps people just suddenly changed his mind and began to worry about our common future. Britons and Americans are now only interested in climate millions of years ago, global warming in a thousand years, and the problem of similarity with prehistoric moss moss modern. For this flow to the continent billions of dollars, the best minds and the latest equipment. And most importantly – all this in full, deafening silence. International cooperation, as well. But do not care about the future generations so pereklinilo brains “compassionate” the world community in the middle of last century. This has made only one number – 1820.
Obtained directly as Ostrovsky: “So you’re not getting the same to anyone!”. A dowry in our case – open in the same 1820 a Russian hero Bellingshausen and Lazarev Antarctica. Russian, you know? And if any power and today has the sole right to the continent, it is only Russia.
Recently, hail knocks strewed on Wikipedia, and I’ll put my modest contribution to this good cause. Began to study the issue, do not look into this, I could not omnipresent. And found an interesting phrase. It turns out that Antarctica was officially opened by the Bellingshausen and Lazarev. Just think, a bureaucratic formality. Only Columbus discovered America somehow “unofficially” … However, patriotism Wikipedia has never sinned.
Where did so many “semi-official” in our head? Answer the question dated sixteenth century maps showing Antarctica free of ice. The most popular – the authorship of a Piri Reis – supposedly discovered in 1929 by the director of the National Museum in Istanbul Khalil Edhem. However, attention to it no one paid until 1959, when an American scientist Charles Hapgood not thought to send it for examination. The authenticity of this card repeatedly questioned. However, Wikipedia it appears in the first line, as the source of the first degree of reliability. Point of the «i» puts the phrase “But it expedition Bellingshausen and Lazarev in the south polar seas, skirting around the world Antarctic ice, has confirmed the existence of the sixth continent.” They do not open, but only confirmed, but we thought! Further: “The first came to the continent is likely to command the American ship” Cecilia “February 7, 1921 ….”. But this is serious! Not what we with their evidence.
But what is the Piri Reis is and why suddenly it “frees” Antarctica? Aware of it, quite frankly, a little bit. Well, Admiral, well, Turkish. In cartographers “closed up” after a magical discovery in 1929 in a kind of palace for no less magical cards in 1513. Right tale of “1001 Nights.” However, do not even set the exact date of the birth of our hero. And, mind you, this is not the Middle Ages, Intense, and the Age of Discovery. In addition to the unfortunate discovery, to more historical responsibility for what was not involved.
Something alarming and digital production in 1929. What event first comes to mind? Depression, The Great and merciless. The United States declined. And Europe is not in chocolate, Germany again bends. What if translated into English at all, by the way, is not typical of the Turkish loyal name (often used generally hyphenated: Piri-flight)? While no conclusions – naked curiosity. Peer – «peer, people from high society», Raise – «rise, growth ‘(including the economy). The fact that the fans of the English puns with their peers and the Chamber of “depressed” Americans are fed on a milk bank, you can, I think, not to mention. That to Germany, the British money flowed into the country, too, about the numbers around 1929. Begin training puppet-Hitler, fascism, the development of German military industry, with all the consequences, including the well-planned explosion in the form of the Second World War.
Special attention is given the figure of the scientist who changed their “sensation” the scientific world. The fact is that in the hands of Charles Hapgood – a humble professor Kinsky College (New Hampshire) were almost all known today “defrosted” card, confirming the same fact: Antarctica was – God be with him without ice! – Discovered and studied by people long before the Bellingshausen and Lazarev. Time “creating” cards perfectly – from the beginning of the sixteenth century and beyond. Not to touch 1492 – Columbus, is not for that, America is already belongs to those who need. Why the continent, deprived of ice? It’s simple – bring a sensation of science, and therefore the entire world community.
Yes, Piri Reis was not alone. In 1959 (at the moment, a year of signing the Convention on Antarctica) Hapgood made another “sensational” discovery. Going through dusty papers of the National Library of Congress in Washington, he turned another page and old stood in amazement – looking at it again, I’m sorry, “naked” Antarctica. At this time of authorship Oronteusa Finiusa, 1531 release. What a misfortune! The scientist was destined to find written sensational card at the right time for this.
Then there were the Mercator map, Philip Buashe, Haji Ahmed. By whom they were discovered – a mystery, but drew attention to them is Hapgood. He handed over the collection to examination colleague from Massachusetts Institute of Technology Dr. Richard Streychandu. In addition, of course, there was not the slightest doubt about their authenticity. All of the above cartographers of the 16th century was drawing his cards allegedly from more ancient sources. Call the names of Ptolemy, Alexander the Great, and even Christopher Columbus. But this is no documentary evidence – not a single “primary source” is not preserved. This is all very reminiscent of children, crashed vase, and point fingers at each other – not to get to the truth, but it is clear that something fishy.
Many people today talk about the fact that millions of years ago on Earth there was a highly developed civilization, largely surpassing ours. Appear even really phenomenal discoveries that are absolutely not fit the logic pattern of thinking. But let’s think clearly and look around the middle. After all, the eternal principle of “look who benefits” has not been canceled. Otherwise desire to think outside the box can play a dirty trick on us, overshadowing a reality. And with maps. Well, do not know how people in the 16th century to determine latitude and longitude, this is possible only in the 18th century with the invention of the chronometer. They did not have the necessary knowledge in the field of mathematics and trigonometry, and the circumference of the Earth Eratosthenes determined at that point yet with great accuracy! At the same time, our “sensational” cards are a cartographic masterpiece of art, with latitudes and longitudes, vymerennymi minute. Made in equal-area projection, they are fully consistent with modern experimental models. Nothing but a miracle of ancient civilization, the scientists can not explain this fact. Do you believe in miracles? I’d like to believe. But a broken vase – a fact which means that the most stubborn thing in the world.
Very cold war
From Antarctica “broken off” by many, but the first was James Cook. In 1768, his expedition on the ship with an optimistic name “attempt” (“Endeavour”) set out to explore the passage of Venus across the Sun. From the imagination of the British government was not. So its new colonies greedy grin again they covered good old Puritan love of science. On the “South” package tour from London Cooke went a few times. One of them even came to the east coast of Australia, has named New South Wales and, without hesitation, declared a British possession. But – that’s not the problem! – Not found a fresh water, and the goal was not counted. Had to swim again. And it almost sailed. Even opened the South Sandwich Islands and South George, but at around 71 degrees south latitude Antarctic ice were too harsh for the English expedition. In the book “Journey to the South Pole and around the world,” Cook wrote, “If anyone finds the determination and perseverance to resolve this, and I will penetrate farther to the south, I do not envy the fame of his discoveries. But I must say that the world is open it will bring some good. ” But had vsego200 miles! One is forced to recall about the fox and the grapes …
“Anti-PR campaign” Cook has worked so well that within 45 years the “useless” without encroaching continent no power. You’ll see, a little more, and the English would prepare a new expedition, but, alas, ahead. And who do you think? That’s right – Bellingshausen and Lazarev. June 4, 1819 Antarctic expedition of the sloop “East” and “peace” left Kronstadt. And in 1820, reached the same forbidding ice continent, proving once again that Russian is not impossible. Another confirmation of this – work of Mikhail Lomonosov “On Layers of the Earth”, where he in 1761, that is, even before the “attempts” Cook argued that the edge of the southern hemisphere is the “mother earth, covered with eternal ice.”
What was going on around Antarctica in the coming years can only be compared with hysteria missed the train. British, Americans, Norwegians, French, Germans frantically trying to get “ride to” the destination. And simply put – one by one swam to the southern coast and opened them again. Parts. The “sea” in his honor would be called, as Ross and Weddell, the new Earth will find that the island, volcanoes …. Often had heated arguments about who is running. Well at least there was no fight. Geographers complete confusion lasted until the early 20th century. About priority Bellingshausen and Lazarev forgotten in 20 years.
In the 20th century the greatest zeal in the “research” Antarctica has shown Germany. She sent three expeditions to the continent: in 1901-1903, in 1911-1912 and in 1938-1939. The last two are the most interesting. Do not even explain why – your eloquent words. It is, no more, no less, on the eve of the two world wars, the “official” instigators were Germans. The second researcher Wilhelm Filchner expedition brought rock samples, and the results of their study was a bombshell: rich mineral resources of Antarctica high quality uranium. Today it is known that uranium stocks on the sixth continent by nearly a third higher than the richest deposits in the Congo, and its concentration is 30 percent. Germans had a similar (if not exact) information by the beginning of the third expedition – the most ambitious, daring and mysterious.
Mess with Antarctica could not bear anyone, but not Stalin. His government, concerned about the agility British and Norwegians in the “study” of the southern continent, in January 1939 announced a formal protest their governments due to the fact that their Antarctic expeditions “… engaged in unreasonable land is divided into sectors, – attention! – Once opened by Russian explorers and navigators … “. These notes were sent to the U.S. and Japan. Wait … Norway, Britain, the U.S., Japan … But where is Germany? Say that Stalin then “fraternized” with Hitler? You false “democratic” information. This is just one more proof that Germany was only a puppet in the hands of a clever puppeteer from the countries mentioned above.
Few people know that the Soviet Union immediately after the devastating victory over the Germans in 1945, won one more, no less ambitious – Americans for over Antarctica. Today is silent on this point, so as not to raise the prestige of Stalin, say so before to depict peaceful nature of Soviet foreign policy. Why Americans are silent? Because it is, perhaps, the biggest shame in their entire history.
In 1920 about Richard Byrd in the U.S. almost no songs were composed. National American hero first flew over the North Pole, dropped the American flag over the South Pole, founded the first long-acting U.S. stations in Antarctica “Little America” (very inspiring name, is not it?). Byrd led four expeditions to the continent, the last of which took place in 1946-1947, immediately after the end of the Second World War. Not a day without sleep, a day without rest. But the star Baird after these events began to shine brighter. According to some reports, the national hero of America landed in hospital, and his name was covered with fog. “Scientific” expedition financed the U.S. government. It was a modest part of a special squadron of 14 U.S. warships and auxiliary vessels. Among them, an aircraft carrier, which was carrying helicopters and airplanes. According to the memoirs Sayersona pilot, aircraft carrier air group “Casablanca” was made up of six (or seven) helicopters «S-46″, 25 aircraft: five deck fighters «F-4U Corsair», five jet attack aircraft “A-21 Vampire”, nine bombers ” Helldayver “commander F7F Tigercat and five XF-5U Skimmer (” pancakes “). The expedition also included submarine Sennet. The expedition – several thousand marine commandos. The total number of participants – 4-5 thousand. The official purpose – to deliver the final blow to the Third Reich in the ice of Antarctica.
Stalin sent a squadron to the Antarctica. In late 1946 whaling fleet “Glory” under Captain Voronin moved to the South Pole. The exact number of surface ships, aircraft and submarines belonging to the squadron is still unknown. But writer-scapes A. Zattets in 1996 wrote in the anthology “Shipbuilding in the USSR”, which participated in the campaign destroyers Project 45 – “High”, “important” and “impressive.” Destroyers were built in 1945, with the trophy of technologies used in the design of their Japanese destroyers like “Fubuki”, intended for swimming in the harsh conditions of northern and Arctic seas. In the air force fighters firm P-63 “Kingkobra” supplied by the Americans under the Lend-Lease Act and made exclusively for the Soviet order. “Kingkobry” in the words of one of the memoirs of the time, could become a major reserve of Stalin in the event of unforeseen changes in the military-political situation and the war with the United States. They were equipped with all parts of the Soviet air defense. Of all the Soviet fighters only “Kingkobra” could get in the sky main U.S. strategic bomber B-29 “Superfortress”.
What happened to the fourth expedition Byrd? Just the fact that well-trained and equipped naval squadron, equipped with food for 8 months, suddenly turned and umotala back to America. As it turned out, it came with huge losses – both material and human. Any attempt to obtain accurate data, are doomed to failure.
The first “exploded” the American press. In one of the central American magazine “Foreign Affairs,” the former minister-counselor of the USSR and the USA, George Kennan, who had just left the emergency Moscow “for consultations with his government,” has published an article that suggested the idea of ”the need for early organizing resistance grown enormously ambitions of the Soviets, who after the successful end of the war with Germany and Japan in a hurry to take advantage of its military and political victory for planting harmful not only to the ideas of communism in Eastern Europe and China, but also in remote Antarctica! “. Indeed, how is there not to talk about the “brutal regime” of Stalin …
In response, the Soviet Union released its memorandum on the political regime of Antarctica, where dot the «i» in the U.S. intentions “… to deprive the Soviet Union of its legal right, based on the findings in this part of the world the Russian navigators, made in the early 19th century.” After this statement, and other decisive actions (and they Stalin was a master) Truman’s Secretary of State James F. Byrnes resigned, forced the President himself. This man has always stood for the toughest sanctions against the USSR. His last words were for public office, “Damned Russian can not scare.”
In 1950, the greed and arrogance of international claims on Antarctica has reached its peak. USSR sent a note that reserves its right to lay claim to the entire continent, as its discoverer. In 1956 – already under Khrushchev – to the shores of Antarctica came diesel-electric ship “Ob” and created the first Soviet observatory and research base – the village of Mirny. Curiously, the Convention on the “universal” Antarctica was signed only three years. And the only apparent reason for such a set of circumstances – the threat of a real presence and strengthening Russian in Antarctica. By the way, by this Convention came in 1961, when it was officially announced about the huge reserves of uranium in the interior of Antarctica. That same year, the Caribbean crisis erupted …. And who knows – maybe the Soviet missiles in Cuba were only a pretext.
And killed a bear?
How strange happens – Russia throughout history wins almost all the wars and does almost everything open. Only now when it comes to the “distribution of prizes,” always remains aloof. Modesty is the strongest? Perhaps only impudent not. You do, my friends even bearskin divide the good old Russian proverb – before he was killed. Today claim to Antarctica: U.S., UK, Norway, Australia, New Zealand, Chile, Argentina, China, South Korea and, as they say, many, many more … Take your time to swoop. To answer only one question: what the hell? Well, what right do you have to Antarctica? The question is not complicated, but it sounds somehow rare.
He does not sound at the UN, it does not sound in Russian schools and Russian media. Business as a matter of course – that this earth, this shelf – another. Who had time, he and eaten? “Inviolability” of Antarctica ends in 2048 with the expiration of Konventsii.Prodlevat her, of course, no one will. After all this time exactly to run the resources utilized five continents. Run out of oil, gas, fresh water. As this business are in Antarctica? 80 percent of the world’s fresh water, oil fields, at times surpassing pantries Saudi Arabia (6.5 billion tons), coal, natural gas (more than 4 trillion cubic meters), iron ore, uranium (remember more than the Congo) and a snack – gold and diamonds. Still have questions? An interesting fact: in 1991, the Convention on Antarctica was added the Madrid Protocol, banning mining on the mainland. For some mysterious accident this year coincided with the year of the collapse of the Soviet Union. And there is not a lot of “accidents”? In the 70 years of the twentieth century, the USSR did not know the level of equal presence in Antarctica – were about 10 scientific databases and about 8 vessels, the scientists made one discovery after another, made tremendous advances in geological studies. But here’s Sound of Thunder “triumph of democracy” and began a rapid slide into the abyss of young Russia, the end point of which can be complete neutralization of our influence on our law of the land. Absurd, cruel and offensively stupid.
In 1999, the Antarctic research was allocated $ 4 million – the amount is not just funny, and mockingly funny (for comparison – one T-80 was worth three times as much). Around the same time there was a war in the information arena – the theme of Antarctica were just ignored. Well, the patient is dead, what else to say? Thus, one of the priority tasks of Russia – the development of ours by right of the continent, not only persists, but deliberately ignored. Meanwhile, the U.S. and China are investing billions of dollars in research, development Superefficient deepwater drilling techniques and build basis, resembling military training grounds, equipped with the latest technology. UK already intends to produce oil in the Antarctic shelf, and Australia and Norway claim to the area, at times exceeding their own. Russia has not officially claimed anything. And from 8 ships that sail in the Soviet era to the coast of Antarctica, today there are only one – “Akademik Fedorov”. Soviet project of creating large airfields for permanent posts with the mainland by air and stayed in my dreams.
“Cake” is not just divide – it is carried off in pieces. After filling in the “pie” very tasty. It is not only the riches of Antarctic depths – subglacial lake “East” is one of the largest freshwater bodies in the world, and it has already had a hand in NASA and U.S. National Security Agency. Strange, but someone else remembers that in 1996, the lake has found a team of Russian scientists led by Andrei Kapitsa. Drilling was suspended in the lake in 1998, when prior to the proposed water had little bolshe100 meters. The world community became worried about the environmental safety. And our scientists urged to wait until you have developed new, “friendly” to the environment drilling methods. You’ll see, they would have developed the British, Americans or Norwegians …. Oh, they would doburili, rest assured. But again, bad luck! The new technology was presented by experts from the Mining Institute in St. Petersburg. Drilling continued in a few years, and, after another couple of ridiculous attempts to “freeze” the operation, the Russian first got to the heart of the lake “Vostok”.
Today on Antarctic research allocated $ 50 million. A lot or a little – a rhetorical question when compared to the billions of the same U.S. and China. On the mainland, there are 5 scientific bases, 2 conserved for the Antarctic goes only one vessel “Akademik Fedorov”. The second – “Academic Treshnikov” – will be tested in the ice during the 58th Antarctic expedition, which was launched in early November. At this time, active “scientific” activity on the continent mimic, sorry, lead, 30 countries, and the funding of their activities increased by 4 times over the years.
Much can be said that Antarctica – it is expensive, useless and, in the end, not very necessary. We’ve got plenty of their own undeveloped fields in the same extreme north, if it really was drawn into the ice. The Sea of Okhotsk is not “plow”. Also, of course, is not a paradise, but tolerable, and closer somehow. And Antarctica – it’s miles of ice, which is impossible to get through on the mainland, and icebergs, which are not a part of the sea to undermine. And on this land earth pipeline? Norwegians are just starting to practice these techniques in the Arctic. That’s it, but start the same. And it’s time to start. Or is someone to do for us, as no other way a couple of decades humanity will not be simple.
The fiercest battles always go for the “invisible” front. In the case of the sixth continent, we are dealing with the biggest political mystery of our time, but it is not a secret – in the midst of war colonization. And soon the time when Antarctica can in good conscience be called the most “hot spot” of the world. “